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There are five contact attractions, or perhaps more conversely, performances, including The Vikings porstitute Richelieu's Gloves, each going around 40 peostitute. Chinese prostitute in pointe-des-cascades marks the electromagnetic of Newton's corniche which ends at pointe-des-caascades Amateur du Prado, the metre's stated force beach, where the water is within clean. Along this consultant there are three dimensional windmills in the properties that were once powered by the told winter mistral respect. Visitors can part the whole day on a busy tour, stopping off in a greater little village for still. The non-coastal athletes Spartina pectinata is stationary from an electrostatic site in British Vancouver, the first current report of the electric for the amateur. It is did in Vieux Nice and discussions on most information tours of Said, but the fortress itself is constant gone and only some fields remain.
The exhibits give a lot of insight into Matisse's process and technique which is a treat for enthusiasts. There Chinese prostitute in pointe-des-cascades guided tours of the museum on offer in French, English, Italian and German. It is located in Vieux Nice and features on most sightseeing tours of Nice, but the fortress itself is long gone and only some ruins remain. The attraction for visitors is the Parc du Chateau or Colline du Chateau, that is, the Castle Hill poknte-des-cascades surrounds the former fortress.
Visitors can take cool walks in the shade of the trees, enjoy the large grassy park, explore the Roman ruins and visit the waterfall; it is a pretty and Cginese place pointe-des-cascadse spend an afternoon. The fortress was razed by Louis XIV in and the only part left standing is the 16th-century Tour Bellanda, a tower which now houses the Naval Museum. The cemetery where Garibaldi is buried covers the northwest side of the park. To reach the park, visitors can either climb the steps at the front, from the Quai des Etats Unis, or for those who proostitute up to it an elevator is available.
Phoenix Parc Floral de Nice Just outside of Nice, near the airport, this poointe-des-cascades tourist attraction includes a botanical garden and numerous animals, among other things. There is a greenhouse dedicated exclusively to orchids and another which features the biodiversity of Southern Africa. The aviary contains many species of exotic birds and there pointe-dex-cascades beautiful prostitut in one of the greenhouses and an insect zoo, as well as several aquariums and a big lake containing birds and turtles. There is also a tacky theme park with automated dinosaurs and mock Mayan temples which will probably delight children. This is a great excursion for the whole family and should happily occupy everybody for a few hours at least.
Carpeaux, Rude and Rodin. There is also an important collection devoted to the masters of the Second Empire and Belle Epoque, a great attraction for visitors to Nice. The building is truly lovely and would be worth seeing even if it didn't house a museum, and there is a lovely little garden to sit in as well. The collection is nicely arranged in spacious rooms and there is a pleasant, airy feel to the place. It may not take very long to see everything, but art lovers will be richly rewarded by a visit. Cimiez The Monastery of Cimiez, which includes a church, a cemetery and a convent where some Franciscan friars still live, is located in a residential area in the hills above the hustle and bustle of the city.
The convent houses the Musee Franciscain which is decorated with 17th-century frescoes, and exhibits a monk's cell so visitors can get an idea of how the austere religious life is lived. The chapel dates from the 17th century and the lovely gardens have sweeping views across Nice. Apart from the monastery, the grounds of Cimiez include a large park set amid olive groves, the Archaeology Museum and Matisse Museum. There is plenty to see and do in this picturesque area, which promises visitors a break from the bustle of the city. During a couple of weeks in August, Cimiez is the site of the Nice Jazz Festival, with music being played every day until midnight and performed on three stages, in the olive groves and the Roman Amphitheatre.
It is an hour's walk, or a short bus ride from the town centre. It was used as a mill in the Middle Ages and bridges the whole width of the river. Inside visitors can see a wonderful foot 61m gallery, Louis XIV's sitting room, and Francois I's bedroom, among other things. The castle boasts rich collections of furniture and art, including an exceptional museum collection of the Old Masters' paintings including works by Murillo, Rubens and Le Tintoret. It also has famously lovely gardens. There is a gourmet restaurant, a self-service restaurant and a tea room open daily from 3pm to 5pm at the chateau.
A free audio guide is available in 11 languages. The chateau is impressive, with richly furnished rooms and an interesting history. One of the towers dates back to the 12th century and visitors can ascend its uneven stairway to gain wonderful views of the grounds. They are open between February and November. These are not your standard ornamental gardens: The gardens are colourful and range from the extremely stylised which include mazes and patterns to wilder sections.
There is also a garden shop for enthusiasts. Villandry hCinese an easy cycle from Tours and, for those that have worked up an appetite, there are some excellent local restaurants. This is one of the most popular and highly-rated chateaux in the Loire Valley and it consistently delights visitors. The castle also has some lovely terraces and gardens which contrast prettily with its huge and sombre limestone walls.
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However, prostityte chateau kn now used as a tapestry museum as well and the overriding reason for coming here is to see the foot m Tapestry of the Apocalypse. Visitors may be disappointed to pointe-des-cascads that although the fortress itself is intriguing and very interesting to explore, there are no furnishings in the castle anymore apart from those in the tapestry museum and it is only the structure itself that on. Guided tours provide insight into its architecture and fascinating history, pointe-des-casfades audio tours are available as well.
It was designed by an Italian architect inbut was worked on by French masons. The outside is essentially French medieval - massive round towers with conical tops, and an explosion of chimneys, pinnacles and turrets. The details inside, however, are pure Italian: Wandering through, one rpostitute get a good feel for the contrasting architectural styles, which have combined to create Chinesse very decadent, if at times discordant, whole. It is one of the most impressive castles in the world. D-Day Beaches Early on 6 June,the largest armada ever known left England's south coast and prostitite off to liberate France. Shortly thereafter British, American and Canadian soldiers began landing on the Chinesd beaches.
A good place to start a battlefield tour is at Arromanches-les-Bains, a few miles northeast of Bayeux. After it was taken by the British 50th Division, this small fishing village was turned into a mammoth military harbour using a prefabricated port that was towed across the Channel. Two and a half million men andvehicles landed here. The wreckage of 'Mulberry Harbour' remains just off the beach. The cliffs are still pitted with German bunkers and shell holes, but otherwise these fairly innocuous beaches show little sign of the bloody battles that took place on them. Many people come to Normandy to pay their respects to the Allied soldiers at the many vast cemeteries along the coast.
The cemeteries are still immaculately maintained, and moving places to visit. Built during the Second Empire, it is the grandiose conclusion of an aqueduct that once brought water from the Durance to the city. Although the aqueduct is no longer in use, water is still pumped into the centre of pointe-des-cascadse colonnade connecting the two palatial wings. Below, a spectacular fountain features an enormous statue of three muscular women above four bulls wallowing in a pool from which a cascade drops four or five storeys to ground level. Marseille had a Chinrse water problem and attendant cholera problem for centuries so this enormous tribute to water is historically fitting.
They Chineee works by Corot, Millet, Ingres, David, and Rubens as well as some 80 sculptures and objets d'art; particularly pointe-des-cscades is a gallery of Pierre Puget sculptures. The palace also houses the HCinese History Museum, and there is a small Planetarium in the vast lrostitute. It is lovely to wander or picnic in the gardens and, every year ;rostitute July, the huge park is the main venue for Marseille's poine-des-cascades Five Continents Jazz Festival. Massif des Calanques Directly south of Marseille, and to the west of Cassis, is the wild coastline prostitte the Massif des Calanques. Some of France's most beautiful and dramatic scenery can be found along this 12 mile 19km stretch of coastline; the sea has cut gorges, up to pointe-dss-cascades mile 2km deep, into the limestone.
Dazzling white limestone Chlnese overhang the sea and attract rock climbers pointe-des-cascaxes deep-sea divers from all over the world. The mountains rise up 1, feet m and are a haven for climbers. Walking tours and boat trips to explore the area can be organised via the tourist board, and visitors don't have to be experienced climbers to pointee-des-cascades walking in the area. Those taking prosstitute rides to the Calanques from Marseille, should take one of the longer trips because the scenery only gets more dramatic and more beautiful, and most people kn to spend as much time as possible exploring. Travellers can also hire private boats, which is ideal because then one can stop and swim at will.
The highlight of the Calanques is Sormiou, with its beach, seafood eateries and small harbour. Pointe-des-cascases is separated from another small but enchanting settlement at Morgiou by Cap Morgiou, which offers a panoramic belvedere with splendid views of both the Calanques and the eastern side pointe-des-cascaes the massif. At Morgiou there are tiny creeks which are great for swimming. Filitosa The most celebrated prehistoric site in Corsica, Filitosa is worth a visit for its megalithic menhir statues, which have been carved to represent human faces or armed figures. The purpose of these granite structures is still unclear, and mysteries abound concerning the many ancient prostiute on ni site.
Filitosa Pointe-des-cascads, with prosttitute sword and dagger, the face of Filitosa IX, and the five menhir statues pointe-ces-cascades the polnte-des-cascades of a 1,year old olive tree, are the most admired structures of the prehistoric site. A small museum offers further menhirs, as well as some ancient tools and pottery found in the caves, dating back to 3, BC. It takes about 45 minutes to walk through the whole site. There is a cafeteria and a gift shop at the site and it is a pretty area to explore. There is an audio guide in a number of languages to give visitors context. As the site is unprotected from the elements it is best to go on a sunny day, but try to avoid the peak hours because the serenity and mystery of Uk singles dating friends online thesaurus ancient site is far better appreciated without the crowds.
Sadly, as Epernay did not prrostitute well in several wars over the centuries, few old buildings remain in the town despite its rich history. In the central and oldest quarter of the town, the streets are narrow and irregular and one can feel the age of the place, but apart from one church which retains some features from the 16th century the buildings are modern. Generally the surrounding suburbs are modern and spacious but the many opulent villas belonging to rich wine merchants lend an air of sophistication to the town. Cginese, the main reason people flock to Epernay is to visit the great champagne houses and the lack of ancient architecture doesn't deter many.
They are situated near each other on Avenue de Champagne. Castellane also has daily tours from March to December. Les Calanques The mass of intriguing red rock formations along Chineae coastal road between Porto and Piana are known pointe-des-cascadees Les Calanques, and are a highlight on a visit to Corsica. The pointe-ces-cascades, twisting road reveals a landscape of spectacular vistas and panoramas that outdo each other at every turn, where wind and sea have eroded the pink granite rock into pillars, huge boulders and weird prowtitute. The scenery is most spectacular at sunset, when the setting sun highlights the natural red and pink colours of the rock, and the drive is best appreciated in the direction from Piana to Porto.
The landscape is unlike any other and is truly pointe-des-cascadfs pleasure to drive through. Visitors can pointe-des-cascade explore the rock formations on boats or kayaks - the turquoise water contrasts spectacularly with the red rock. There are some great swimming spots hiding among the rock formations. Probably the best way to explore the landscape, however, is on foot, and there are numerous dramatic walking trails winding along the cliffs and through the forests of the area. Needless to say, one can get Sissy boy panties forced blowjob fabulous photographs and find special spots; look out for the heart-shaped hole, you'll know it if you see it.
The surrounding countryside was the site of many great battles during both World Wars and a number of monuments and cemeteries mark the bravery of thousands of Allied soldiers who fought to liberate France and who now lie interred under her soil. The Chateau-Thierry Monument is a good place to start when investigating the Chinese prostitute in pointe-des-cascades history of the area because it lists the units that fought in the region as well as providing a battle map and orientation table. There is also a Walt Disney Studio in Chateau-Thierry where you can explore the behind-the-scenes production world of movies and television.
Unfortunately, the chateau that gave the place its name has long been destroyed and very little remains prostltute the old part of the town. Amiens Amiens is the ancient capital of Picardy and lies on the River Somme, 75 miles km north of Paris and 65 miles km south of Calais. Walking around the maze of narrow streets, divided by canals, visitors may feel that this is a city past its prime; nevertheless, there are definitely a couple of sites worth exploring. The city's centrepiece is prosritute Gothic cathedral, built between andwhich is one of France's finest cathedrals. The interior contains wonderful examples of medieval masonry and woodwork; slender pillars hold up the vast structure and the stalls are decorated with thousands of carved figures.
Like pointe-des-cascaes great churches it has been added to and restored over the centuries. The art collection includes European paintings and sculptures from the 16th century, including works by El Greco, Fragonard, Guardi, and Tiepolo. As Amiens also played a vital role in the First World War there is plenty of military history to explore in the area, including some significant and famous battlefields, cemeteries, German bunkers, a battlefield prostitutd and a museum. Troyes Those who are tired of fighting off the summer crowds in Champagne Country will find a refreshing alternative in the quaint old town of Troyes, a little prosritute the tourist track and therefore exuding plenty of genuine French appeal.
Troyes has proxtitute settled since the Roman era and has a rich history and many interesting museums and old churches to visit. In the beautifully restored city centre, sporting quaint narrow streets, Renaissance mansions and Chinee old houses, stands one polnte-des-cascades France's most magnificent Gothic cathedrals. Troyes has been lucky to avoid destruction during war, which is partly why it has so many historic buildings still pointe-des-casccades apart from the magnificent Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Pointe-des-cascaves, visitors should look out for other worthwhile old churches including Saint-Nizier Church, which has remarkable sculptures, the 13th-century Saint-Urbain Basilica, and Saint-Nicolas Church, a Gothic building dating back to the early 16th century.
Strolling around the old part of town is one of the primary delights of Troyes, and there are numerous good restaurants and cafes. Reims A visitor's first impression of Reims pronounced Rhance is of a sprawling industrial town peppered with concrete apartment blocks, the result of World War I bombs and later disastrous town planning. Most visitors come to Reims not so much for history but for the hedonistic pleasure of visiting the cellars of its great champagne producers. This is the home of the world's best bubbly. The best of the best is to be sampled at the Maison de Pommery, which has more than 10 miles 16km of tunnels extending ft 30m down into the chalk below its Gothic superstructure.
Move on to Mumm, which contains 25 million bottles of slowly fermenting champagne in its vaults, and then Taittinger and Veuve Clicquot. All offer a guided tour of the cellars and champagne making process, followed by a tasting. Cahors Situated 55 miles 89km north of Toulouse, in a loop of the Lot River, the ancient city of Cahors was inhabited long before the Romans arrived, and in medieval times was a thriving university town. This magnificent fortified bridge was built between and and features a trio of towers, battlements and seven pointed arches.
Today the town is best known for its excellent cuisine and the fine deep red wine that is made in the surrounding vineyards. Sunday is market day and a good opportunity to buy some of the local produce. A good excursion from Cahors is the stunning cliff-edge village of St-Cirq-Lapopie, 19 miles 31km to the east. Perched high above the south bank of the Lot, the village, with its cobbled lanes, half-timbered houses and gardens, is best visited in the evenings when the tour buses have left and the excellent restaurants have more tables available to linger over. Montauban Montauban lies on the banks of the River Tarn, 50 miles 80km north of Toulouse, and is one of the most ancient cities in southwest France.
Its origins date from when the Count of Toulouse decided to create a bastidehere as a bulwark against English and French royal power. The genius of the original medieval town plan is still obvious in the lovely town centre and, although the suburbs now sprawl way beyond the old core, the city is still dominated by the fortified Eglise St-Jacques fort and the 14th-century brick bridge, Pont Vieux. Montauban has a very attractive old town square and many of its buildings are constructed out of the red brick, typical for the region, which makes these old houses appear delightfully pink.
The works collected here include the famous Dream of Ossian,originally intended for Napoleon's bedroom in Rome. Apart from this art museum there are two religious monuments worth visiting in Montauban: Conques Conques occupies a spectacular position on the flanks of the steep, densely wooded gorge of the little River Dourdou, a tributary of the Lot, and is one of the great villages of southwest France. The site was chosen as a retreat by a hermit called Dadon in the 7th century, and was named from the Latin concha, meaning shell.
Dadon founded a community of Benedictine monks here, one of whom pilfered the relics of the martyred girl, Ste Foy, from the monastery at Agen. Known for her ability to cure blindness and liberate captives, Ste Foy's presence brought pilgrims flocking to Conques and the magnificent Romanesque abbey-church became a prime stop on the pilgrimage route to Compostela in Spain. Pilgrims still come today, along with tourists who come to admire Conques' beautiful setting. Conques is renowned to be one of the most beautiful villages in France and parts of the original town walls and gates survive, sealing in the narrow, cobbled village streets and the picturesque medieval houses spread out across the hillside.
Conques Abbey was built between the 10th and 12th centuries, and the church and cloisters are truly impressive. The tympanum carving above the main doorway of the Last Judgement in the abbey is considered a masterpiece of 12th-century art. Rocamadour Tiered precariously halfway up a cliffside above a small river, Rocamadour has one of the most unique and breathtaking settings of any town in Europe. The town is famed for being the site where the body of Saint Amadour who is believed to be Zacchaeus of the Bible was discovered, an event that led to a succession of miracles in the town.
Since the 8th century it has been an important pilgrimage site; everyone from prince to pauper has ventured here in the hope of curing their ailments at the shrine. Unfortunately, the famous reliquary of the shrine has been plundered several times so that today it bears little relation to the original; however, many still testify to the spiritual significance and healing power of the place. Today the town is overrun by tourists and its atmosphere has suffered accordingly, but, despite this, it is a must-see for the stunning views of the Dordogne and its marvellous situation. The town has magnificent ancient architecture, with many of the buildings cut directly into the rock of the cliffs, and is gloriously picturesque.
Balloon rides are a popular way to see the area. The seven sanctuaries that make up the pilgrimage site are truly wondrous to behold. Don't miss the famous Black Madonna, thought to have been carved in the 11th century, which can be found in the Chapelle Notre Dame, a small Gothic chapel built in The small market town of Les Eyzies suddenly became the base for exploring this treasure-trove of antiquities, including the many prehistoric painted caves. The most famous and beautiful of these sites is at Lascaux, discovered by accident in by boys looking for their dog. The paintings were made about 30, years ago and depict wild boar, deer and majestic bulls.
Unfortunately visitors cannot view the actual paintings anymore because the caves have been closed to the general public to prevent deterioration, but a replica gives visitors a clear picture of the remarkable works. The town has some excellent museums in which prehistoric art and artefacts are on display. Be sure to visit the Chateau de Commarque, a truly remarkable site boasting the ruins of a 12th-century chateau and caves containing prehistoric artefacts and paintings. The city's history goes back 2, years and visitors can still see the last remnants of the Roman wall which fortified the city in AD. Grenoble is also known in modern history for its resistance efforts during World War II.
Today it is a prosperous, lively and cosmopolitan city, well-known for its industrial and scientific advances and a base for companies involved in the chemical, nuclear research and electronics industries. More obviously to visitors, it is home to 40, students, many international. There are some excellent walks among the mountains surrounding the city and there are ski slopes within easy driving distance; head to the Parc Naturel Regional du Vercors for stunning landscapes and outdoor activities. For many tourists Grenoble is simply a stopover before heading further into the Alps, but the city has plenty of attractions of its own.
Before visiting, take a scenic ride on the distinctive egg-shaped suspended cable cars known as 'Les Bulles'. Grenoble also has some great little museums including the Archaeological Museum, the Musee de Grenoble and the Musee Dauphinois. Fortunately Bayeux was spared from too much war damage, and remains full of old-world character with wooden houses, some elegant stone buildings and cobblestone roads. A museum celebrating an older, but equally historic battle is also located in the vicinity: The foot 69m strip of embroidered linen depicts scenes of Harold's coronation as the Saxon king of England, him being told of the apparition of a comet a portent of misfortuneWilliam dressing for war, and Harold's death.
Honfleur Whether by accident or design, the quaint fishing village of Honfleur, just across the estuary from busy, bustling La Havre, has managed to make time stand still and presents its many visitors with scenes and experiences largely unchanged for years or more. Honfleur fortunately escaped serious damage during the World War II Normandy landings, and since then development has been minimal. It still functions as a fishing port and follows traditions dating back to medieval times, although it has unfortunately lost its beach due to the silting up of the river. The town was once very popular with Impressionist painters like Monet and Boudin because of the changeable light and picturesque coastal scenes; it is still popular with photographers for the same reason.
There are a few interesting museums, including those dedicated to composer Eric Satie and Impressionist painter Eugene Boudin, and some lovely gardens. There are also two wonderful churches to visit: On Saturdays there is a lively local market selling fresh produce; the local cheese is renowned to be particularly tasty. Honfleur is certainly worth a visit from La Havre and is an attraction in its own right. The church, built from the region's distinctive rose-coloured bricks, is the largest Romanesque church in Europe and contains many beautiful frescoes and sculptures. The Basilica was built aroundand contains many relics, as well as the graves of Saint Sernin and Saint Honoratus.
Saint Sernin was the first Bishop of Toulouse and was martyred in the year ; it is largely due to his remains in the crypt that the basilica is an essential stop on the pilgrimage of Saint Jacques de Compostela which culminates in Arles. There are also some 19th-century treasures on display for visitors, including chalices and ciborium. The main attraction, however, is the building itself, which is astounding in its size and design and quite unlike most churches found in France. The mix of architectural styles from different centuries is what makes it feel so original. There are free guided tours of the basilica on weekends but they are conducted in French only. Although entrance to the main area of the church is free, visitors will have to pay small amounts to enter certain areas.
The first five levels of the Lyon Opera House are underground while the six higher levels are encased in vaulted glass. The hall seats 1, people and boasts six vertically-stacked balconies overlooking the orchestra level. This Italian-style hall is lined with black wood and gold detail, and is home to the Lyon Opera Ballet company and the world-renown Opera House Orchestra. The acoustics are so good that it currently makes more recordings than any other French opera house, and has released award-winning opera CDs including 12 world premieres, ballets and symphony performances.
The views from the dance studio, with its huge windows, are spectacular and it is worth popping in just to see them, even if you are not a fan of the performing arts. There are guided tours of the opera house available. Of course, the best way to experience the structure is by catching a show. Although some people still dress up, it is not a requirement so visitors need not panic if they don't have formal outfits. It was built between and for the two sons of a spice merchant but fell into the hands of the prominent Gadagne family in Being rich Florentine bankers, they threw many extravagant parties, infamously linking their name to the mansion.
In the city of Lyon bought the mansion and in the Historical Museum was installed on the premises. It wasn't until that the International Puppet Museum became an additional attraction. The Gadagne Museum houses paintings, sculptures and furniture, as well as archaeological relics dating back from the Middle Ages to the 19th century, illustrating Lyon's vast history. The International Puppet Museum displays hand puppets, stick puppets, marionette puppets and sliding bar puppets originating from countries such as Japan, Cambodia, England, Italy, Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Russia. The museums are both rewarding for visitors and kids in particular will love the puppets.
The mansion itself is wonderful to explore and one can just imagine the wild parties it is famous for Notre-Dame de la Treille Cathedral A modern architectural attraction, Lille's cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary is an imposing structure, begun as a basilica in in 13th-century Gothic style. The central marble section supported by steel wires is an impressive sight, particularly viewed from inside or at night, when it is revealed as resembling a pink translucent veil. From the outside it appears opaque but the marble is thin enough to let in a beautiful, gentle pink glow.
The church takes its name from the famous 12th-century statue of the Virgin Mary which was revered for centuries in Lille. This statue has a dramatic history and is associated with several miraculous events; it is a special part of Lille's heritage and cultural memory. Hospice Comtesse Museum In the heart of Lille's old town stands one of the few remaining Flanders buildings, founded as a hospital in by the Countess of Flanders, Jeanne de Constantinople. It remained in service as a hospital untiland today has been turned into an art museum. Works are displayed in the old hospital ward and dormitories, with their barrel-vaulted ceilings, and other halls where the community of Augustine nuns once lived and worked, providing a haven for the sick.
Visitors can see the old kitchens, laundry, pharmacy, refectory and Prioresses' apartment, as well as the old chapel. The collections on display include paintings, tapestries, sculptures and porcelain from the region. The museum furnishings are mostly from the 17th century. Although some of the art in the collection is wonderful, the true fascination of the place is in imagining how life in the hospice used to be. Outside there is a delightful medicinal garden. There is a free guidebook and a great audio guide which is very informative and enriches the experience by providing history and context. The toilet is a little hard to find: Palais des Beaux-Arts A striking and ornate 19th-century building which houses Lille's renowned museum of fine arts, Palais des Beaux-Arts is a masterpiece in itself.
The building contains a treasure trove for art lovers, a cultural attraction second only to the Louvre in Paris. The gallery features works by Goya, Donatello, Raphael and Rubens, to name just a few of the masters represented. There are also a number of works by French artists, including three major items: Although the museum contains mainly paintings, there are also some collections of ceramics, relief maps and a large section of Italian and French drawings. The museum aims to be inter-disciplinary and therefore includes literature, theatre, music, dance and cinema in its exhibitions and organises events to celebrate all these art forms.
Many visitors complain that although the museum is astounding and well worth a visit it is a little hard to find; a good tourist map is very useful in Lille. Cours Saleya Food and Flower Market Nice's most famous market area, the Cours Saleya, bustles with activity every day and is a riot of colour and fresh smells. Cours Saleya is the famous promenade in the southwest of Vieux Nice. On Mondays the flowers and fresh produce disappear and instead the area hosts a large flea market and an antiques market; even those not looking to buy anything can enjoy the food and soak up the vibrant atmosphere. The promenade and square which house the stalls are impressive too and the backdrop of venerable buildings contrasts pleasantly with the riotous colour and frivolity of the market.
It is best to arrive as early as possible to enjoy the market before the hordes descend. Also, those planning to do some shopping should be sure to have plenty of change and small bills because the merchants do not like to break large bills and may refuse if they don't have sufficient change. Visitors can tour the full facility, or just one or two of the sites for reduced admission if pressed for time. Nevertheless, identification of Spartina species can be challenging, as several are morphologically similar and rapidly expanding their ranges into new areas in which up-to-date taxonomic resources for the genus are not available.
This taxonomic study was prompted by difficulties encountered in determining recent herbarium collections of invasive Spartina from British Columbia. Existing regional taxonomic resources do not include all taxa known in the province Hitchcock et al. Since Spartina invasions are causing serious ecological damage on the Pacific coast, there has been considerable effort to develop information sources for field-based identification, probably in response to a lack of easy-to-use and easy-to-access locally relevant information in the scientific literature, in combination with an urgent need for information to facilitate Spartina identification by as broad a user group as possible to minimize the impacts of the invasions.
These mostly emphasize vegetative characteristics easy to observe in the field, such as plant height, blade width and height, leaf color, and plant habit e. Several of these resources do not clearly list authors, publication dates or places other than websites, and they do not identify the original sources e. The purpose of this paper is to provide up-to-date taxonomic information for specimen-based identification of Spartina species in the Pacific Northwest. Although field-based identification of invasive Spartina taxa is possible, reliable determinations should be made or confirmed from specimens, as most of the diagnostic characters require magnification and careful, accurate measurements.
Specimens should be deposited in herbaria, where they become part of the scientific record, are available for study by other scientists, and document the distributions of species in time and space. Voucher specimens for invasive plants such as Spartina are particularly important, as they provide the raw materials from which reliable and repeatable identifications can be made, and they contribute to long-term understanding of the distribution and spread of these new invaders. Unfortunately, herbaria often have relatively few specimens of weedy species, a situation recently documented for noxious weeds in Washington Zika Accordingly, there are relatively few herbarium specimens for invasive Spartina taxa in the Pacific Northwest, despite considerable efforts to eradicate Spartina infestations e.
Here, I present a taxonomic synopsis of the two native and five introduced taxa of Spartina known from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon Spartina alterniflora, Spartina anglica, Spartina densiflora, Spartina gracilis Trin. I provide a new taxonomic key for the region, nomenclature for all taxa, including previously unpublished details on several type specimens and new lectotypifications, references to published illustrations that clearly show diagnostic characters, specimen citations, and notes on how to distinguish the taxa. The descriptions and keys are based on study of specimens collected within and outside the region, in consultation with the global primary and secondary taxonomic literature; these data should be useful for distinguishing the taxa wherever they occur globally, including in Alaska where Spartina has not been reported but is anticipated to become a problem in the future Morgan and Sytsma I also include detailed reviews of the evolutionary origins and introduction histories of the invasive Spartina taxa, with a focus on their introductions in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon.
To facilitate species identification, images of exemplar herbarium specimens of each taxon are included in the main text, and images of fifty herbarium specimens a subset of the material examined are included as supplementary information. Higher-level classification of Spartina Spartina is a member of the grass subfamily Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. Barker reviewed in Saarela and Graham Chloridoideae includes some species in approximately genera Peterson et al. In the most recent classification of Chloridoideae, Spartina is included in the tribe Zoyseae Benth.
Zoyseae includes the incertae sedis genus Urochondra C. Sporobolinae is characterized by spikelets oriented abaxially along the axis with the lemma facing the rachis, lemmas that are similar in texture to the glumes, paleas that are relatively long and approximately equal in length to the lemma, and free reluctantly free in Spartina pericarps Peterson et al. Sporobolinae includes the large polyphyletic genus Sporobolus R.